Scientific Papers of Interest

Balkenhol, N., L.P. Waits and R.J. Dezzani. 2009. Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: an evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data. Ecography 32:818-830.

Begley, J. S., and R. A. Long. 2009. Modeling of wildlife dispersal habitat at Stevens Pass, Washington. Western Transportation Institute, College of Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana. (PDF)

Cushman, S.A., and J.S. Lewis. 2010. Movement behavior explains genetic differentiation in American black bears. Landscape Ecology 25:1613-1625.

Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, J. Hayden and M.K. Schwartz. 2006. Gene flow in complex landscapes: Testing multiple hypotheses with causal modeling. American Naturalist 168:486- 499.

Epps, C.W., J.D. Wehausen, V.C. Bleich, S.G. Torres and J.S. Brashares. 2007. Optimizing dispersal and corridor models using landscape genetics. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:714-724.

Gaines, W.L., Singleton, P., and A.L. Gold. 2000. Conservation of rare carnivores in the North Cascades Ecosystem, Western North America. Natural Areas Journal 20:366-375.

Landguth, E.L., S.A. Cushman, M.K. Schwartz, K.S. McKelvey, M. Murphy & G. Luikart. 2010. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics. Molecular Ecology 19:4179- 4191.

MacKay, P., D. Smith, M. Parker, and R.A. Long. 2008. Scat detection dogs. In: Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores, R.A. Long et al. (eds.). Washington, DC: Island Press

McRae, B.H., B.G. Dickson, T.H. Keitt and V.B. Shah. 2008. Using circuit theory to model connectivity in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Ecology 89:2712-2724.

Shirk, A.J., D.O. Wallin, S.A. Cushman, C.G. Rice, and K.I. Warheit. 2010. Inferring landscape effects on gene flow: a new model selection framework. Molecular Ecology 19:3603–3619.

Singleton, P.H., W.L. Gaines, and J.F. Lehmkuhl. 2002. Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment. United States Forest Service Research Paper PNW-RP-549, Wenatchee, WA. (

Taylor, P.D., L. Fahrig, K. Henein, and G. Merriam. 1993. Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 63:571-574.

Tischendorf, L., and L. Fahrig. 2000. How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landscape Ecology 15:633-641.